What’s the Low Voltage Electric and how it works?

Homeowners need automated control, internet and lighting. This is why builders must now install low-voltage electrical. Nowadays, various electronic devices have become a popular feature in most households. This explains why most builders and owners have switched to low-voltage power. The use of low-voltage equipment is another matter. It is important to learn more about low-voltage electrical to get the best low-voltage electrical applications. Read on to learn everything about low-voltage electricity.

1. Types of Voltage

Potential difference is also called electric tension, or electric force. Two points differ in voltage when they are separated by a potential difference. Voltage is what causes electrons to pass through the conductive circuit. Important work, such as lighting, cannot be performed without voltage. Voltage is classified as follows.

High Voltage

High voltage, UHV and UHV are common phenomena in power plant transmission. Electricity is transmitted at this level to improve efficiency. Low current accompanied by high voltage transmission makes it possible to use thinner and lighter cables. The use of thinner and lighter cables can help reduce tower and wire construction costs.

The higher voltage is about 115,000 to 230,000 volts alternating current. The ultra-high voltage ranges from 345,000 to 765,000 volts AC. The AC power transmitted in the United States exceeds 450,000 volts.

High-voltage transmission is accomplished through high-quality switches and power distribution panels. In addition, the control room should have a redundant switch function. The ultra-high voltage ranges from 765,000 volts to 1.1 million volts AC. China is developing a 1.1 million volt alternating current system.

Medium Pressure

The medium power supply voltage is used in large industries and factories that require large amounts of power. These factories and large industries use electrical change analysis to improve operations by increasing voltage and lowering amperage. Industries and factories that use medium voltage require backup power. Most industrial generators can provide 13,800 volts alternating current.

Low Voltage

The low-voltage power supply is equal to or less than 600 volts alternating current. Usually used in factories that use automation. For better use, low voltage is divided into two types: power supply and control.

2. Advantages of using low-voltage electrical appliances

Although high-voltage electricity is suitable for transmission lines and factories that use too much electricity, most of the electrical appliances in our homes and offices run at low-voltage. The use of low-voltage direct current provides a lot of things. For example, the use of low-voltage electrical equipment can reduce costs and improve safety. Low-voltage power supply also improves energy efficiency. Most renewable energy sources, including solar, hydro and wind power, provide low direct current.

However, some devices use a combination of low voltage and high voltage to improve performance. Despite this, the balance is tilting towards low-voltage systems, especially in lighting. The introduction of light-emitting diodes is a good example of this transition. Orbital and concave lighting for accent lighting is also an example of balance changes.

Low-voltage power systems are also becoming more and more popular because they generate less heat than high-voltage power systems. Reducing heat allows us to save energy by reducing the need for cooling.

Installing low-voltage wires is also less busy than high-voltage wires. Any skilled electrician can install low-voltage wiring. Fortunately, installing low-voltage wiring is much safer than installing high-voltage wiring.

Low-voltage lighting can also save backup batteries because they consume less power. In addition, some LEDs have emergency backup drivers.

3. Application of low-voltage electrical appliances

Low-voltage electrical has become a common feature in most settings due to the benefits they provide. The following are some applications of low-voltage electrical appliances.


Circuit breakers are also called automatic switches and are used for irregular on-off control in low-voltage power distribution systems. The circuit breaker can disconnect the fault line in the case of short circuit, under voltage fault, overload, etc. They are divided into:

  • Use frame circuit breakers for protection.
  • Current-limiting circuit breaker.
  • DC fast circuit breaker.
  • Plastic case circuit breaker, used for the control switch of lighting circuit, motor and electric heating circuit.


The controller is manually operated and used to control high-current switching equipment in the main circuit. Cam controllers, plane controllers and roller controllers are commonly used controller types. They directly control the starting, stopping, commutation and braking of motors in lifting equipment. In addition, the controller can also adjust the speed. The cam controller is used more than other controllers and has a larger contact capacity.


The role of the contractor is to control the motor, welding machine, capacitor bank and electric heating. The contractor can automatically switch from alternating current to direct current. Automated control circuits commonly use it. These two types of contractors include exchange contractors and DC contractors.

The AC contractor has a contact system, an electromagnetic mechanism and an arc control device. Besides housings and buffer springs, they also include reaction springs, contact pressure springs, and transmission mechanisms.


Three groups of low-voltage control elements are used in the starter, allowing the motor to run long distances. Electromagnetic starter is a commonly used type of starter. They consist of thermal relays and contractors.

Master switch

The main switch issues an on-off command in the control circuit to make the control circuit perform the designated task. Buttons, proximity switches, main controllers, travel switches, foot switches, selector switches and general transfer switches are all widely used main switches.


Resistors are used in all electrical equipment to adjust the low-voltage and high-current in the DC line. They are also used to start, brake and adjust the speed of motors.


Originally called a capacitor, a capacitor is a passive dual thermoelectric element that stores energy in the form of electric charge. All capacitors have two electrode plates separated by an insulator.

4. How to use low voltage equipment safely

Low voltage current can cause electric shock, which can lead to injury or death. Symptoms of low-voltage shocks include burns, numbness, unconsciousness, seizures, abdominal pain, chest pain, and difficulty breathing. Here is how to use low-voltage equipment safely:

  • Assess all risks associated with the task.
  • Understand the system.
  • Minimize exposure.
  • Look for exposed charged metal and cover it.
  • Reduce energy.
  • Remember, when performing the task, keep your face and body sideways with one hand.

Do you need high-quality low-voltage electrical equipment? Contact leading electrical suppliers in your area to obtain certified and licensed low-voltage equipment.


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